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viburnum leaf beetle eggs

Author: Amy Stone. Viburnum leaf beetle larvae and damage (photo courtesy of Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org) Viburnum leaf beetle adults (photo courtesy of Paul Weston, Cornell University, Bugwood.org) Feeding is limited to species of viburnum. Between the 2019 and 2020 growing seasons, several residents in Livingston County contacted the local MSU Extension office with descriptions of leaf-feeding damage to viburnum shrubs. Eggs of P. viburni are laid in round cavities excavated by the ovipositing female beetle and covered with a protective secretion. If you think you have seen viburnum leaf beetle or its damage report it via the 1-866-NO-EXOTIC phone number, the GLEDN app, or on the EDDMaps website. Viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) is an invasive pest from Europe that is spreading in Washington State.It can cause branch dieback and even death of Viburnum species, including native species and popular ornamentals. Small twigs are damaged as the females chew holes into twigs to deposit her eggs. The adult yellowish-brown beetles are ¼ long. Biology and Life cycle: Viburnum leaf beetle overwinters in the egg stage. The eggs overwinter and hatch into larvae in spring. Distribution The native range of the viburnum leaf beetle includes most of Europe. While the leaves of viburnum (Viburnum spp.) Mother viburnum beetles lay their eggs in late summer through first frost on the undersides of young twig ends. Photo by Craig Cramer These viburnum twigs, collected in early fall, show the characteristic row of capped egg cavities. VIBURNUM LEAF BEETLE, Pyrrhalta viburni, (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) Images by Timothy Abbey, Richard Cowles and Rose Hiskes The viburnum leaf beetle was first found in Connecticut in 2004. While this insect feeds exclusively on viburnums, some seem to be more favored than others. Weston and Diaz (2005) who studied the effect of temperature on the development of immature stages found out that larval development is fast in the temperature range 63-72°F (17-22°C) and levels off at 81°F (27°C). The adult beetle is brown and about ¼” long. Eggs are typically laid in a row on the undersurface of the twigs. Photographs: Curtis E. Young, Ohio State University Extension. They excavate a shallow depression, insert the eggs and seal them in with excrement. The larvae are quite small and darkly coloured when they first emerge. (Photos courtesy of Paul Weston, Cornell University, and Bruce Watt, University of Maine; Bugwood.org) Chemical: Prior to bud break, apply horticultural oil to twigs where VLB eggs have been laid. A female can lay up to 500 eggs. The viburnum leaf beetle overwinters as eggs, and requires a chilling period of approximately five months (Weston and Diaz 2005). The viburnum leaf beetle Pyrrhalta viburni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a specialist Viburnum leaf-feeder that is native to Eurasia and invasive in North America. Egg pits of the viburnum leaf beetle. This is one of the most effective ways to reduce viburnum leaf beetle populations. By June the skeletonizing has become quite apparent. The species of viburnum most susceptible to infestation include: The viburnum leaf beetle lays its tiny brown eggs on the underside of twigs, typically in a straight row. The larvae are greenish-yellow. Each pair of twigs was homogeneous in length (12 cm) and diameter to the nearest half millimetre (from (a) (b) Figure 1. Viburnum leaf beetle larvae are voracious leaf eaters, feeding on the areas between the veins creating a “skeletonized” appearance. Eggs remain in place through the winter until they hatch the following spring. Viburnum Leaf Beetle. The viburnum leaf beetle, first found in North America in 1947 in the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario, Canada, Control: As larvae grow, defoliation becomes more obvious a… (A single female viburnum beetle can lay up to 500 eggs. Adults and larvae feed on plants belonging to the genus Viburnum, sometimes causing their death. Mother viburnum beetles lay their eggs in late summer through first frost on the undersides of young twig ends. shrubs have fallen, if the viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) was present earlier this year, the eggs laid on the shrubs newest growth will be evident.This non-native invasive species feeds as both a larvae and adult, skeletonizing the viburnum … While the leaves of viburnum (Viburnum spp.) For more information on viburnum leaf beetle management and treatment, contact us today for a complimentary consultation from our fully trained and certified arborists. Like adults, the larvae feed on Viburnum leaves. (a) Clusters of viburnum leaf beetle (VLB) egg masses along a Viburnum opulus twig. If you happen to encounter VLB, we ask you report your finding on the Great Lakes Early Detection Network (GLEDN) App. The mat… The insect does spread naturally, but can also be moved on plant material. Pyrrhalta viburni is a species of leaf beetle native to Europe and Asia, commonly known as the viburnum leaf beetle.It was first detected in North America in 1947 in Ontario, Canada. In Europe and North America, the viburnum leaf beetle overwinters in the egg stage. The eggs are then covered with a hard “cap” made of dried mucus, excrement or chewed bark. (June5,2015) !! The larvae will go through three instars, growing as they molt. Viburnum Leaf Beetles – Plant resistant viburnum varieties to avoid viburnum leaf beetles. Viburnum Leaf Beetle. First feeding injury appears as small pin pricks or holes. (Photos courtesy of Paul Weston, Cornell University, and Bruce Watt, University of Maine; Bugwood.org) Chemical: Prior to bud break, apply horticultural oil to twigs where VLB eggs have been laid. Adult feeding damage. Pictures and descriptions of the life cycle stages are below. Adult feeding damage. Introduce lacewings as beneficial insects. Viburnum Leaf beetLe Pyrrhalta viburni (Paykull) A leaf beetle called the “viburnum leaf beetle” is a pest that has the potential to become a serious problem in nurseries and landscapes in Pennsylvania. Pyrrhalta viburni is a species of leaf beetle native to Europe and Asia, commonly known as the viburnum leaf beetle.It was first detected in North America in 1947 in Ontario, Canada. Like adults, the larvae feed on Viburnum leaves. If you noticed VLB activity earlier this year, it is a great time to revisit the infested shrubs, looking for egg laying sites on the newest growth. Viburnum leaf beetle The damage potential from the beetle is quite extensive, if not managed. Both the adult beetle and their larvae feed on many types of viburnums. Viburnum leaf beetles overwinter as eggs. The viburnum leaf beetle (VLB), Pyrrhalta viburni, is an invasive insect that feeds exclusively on and can significantly damage Viburnum species. For more information about the GLEDN App, check out the website at: https://apps.bugwood.org/apps/gledn/  Additionally, the OSU Woodland Stewards Program has a recorded presentation on how to use GLEDN at: https://osu.zoom.us/rec/play/uJIoJeGt_DM3EteV5QSDBaR_W47oJq2s23AZ-qALzUrjWyMLNVegZLZHN7dWBA7rrJjYTg1YTuwjBfRF or a quick video link at: https://mediasite.osu.edu/Mediasite/Play/d9d998f0840042c39f1f84bbd68a5b061d, Seasonal Scouting for Viburnum Leaf Beetle Eggs. Viburnum Leaf Beetle Pyrrhalta viburni (Paykull); Family: Chrysomelidae Larvae and feeding damage. However, specimens had been collected in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia in 1924. Dogwood Twig Borers – Dogwood borers will dig out holes in the stems, leaving sawdust behind. VLB is native to Europe and was detected in Canada in 1947. • Identify egg cases (winter), caterpillar (April - June), adults (June - October) to confirm Viburnum leaf beetle. Photo credit: PJ Liesch, UW Insect Diagnostic Lab. This non-native invasive species feeds a larvae and adult, skeletonizing viburnum leaves. Stick a wire into every hole you find to kill the borer inside. The adult beetle also causes damage by chewing elliptical holes in the leaves. Viburnum leaf beetles overwinter as eggs. Eggs of P. viburni are laid in round cavities excavated by the ovipositing female beetle and covered with a protective secretion. (A single female viburnum beetle can lay up to 500 eggs. Also, a person should look for the overwintering egg sites (holes and scars). This non-native invasive species feeds as both a larvae and adult, skeletonizing the viburnum leaves. A single female may produce 500 eggs. PJ Liesch, UW Insect Diagnostic Lab . The viburnum leaf beetle (VLB) (Pyrrhalta viburni) [order Coleoptera: family Chrysomelidae] damages a variety of viburnum species and hybrids by feeding and egg-laying activities. Local viburnum leaf beetle activity. Even if you didn't observe VLB activity, scouting for eggs is a simple diagnostic step that everyone can do. Prune away egg-infested branches during the winter. Adult viburnum leaf beetle feeding damage (left) and egg-laying sites (right). The Viburnum Leaf Beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni , can cause severe defoliation of ornamental viburnums, branch dieback and eventually can kill the plants.This pest has a high entry and establishment potential for the Southeast.In the early spring, one should closely examine the small twigs from the previous season. Viburnum Leaf Beetle; More Gardening Resources from Cornell Video: Adult laying eggs [Video by Jame Reilly] Larva emerging [Video by D. Swaciak] Larva feeding [Video by Kent Loeffler.] Later in the season (August-September) greyish-brown adult beetles will also feed on the leaves of Viburnum tinus. Below are a list of some of this insect's favorites. Eggs are ball-shaped, yellow-brown to brown in color with a sculptured surface and about 1/16" in diameter. Larvae eventually drop or crawl down the trunk of the plant to pupate in the soil. VLB has a complete life cycle with four distinct stages: egg, larva (3 larval instars), pupa and adult. The eggs are laid on the branches, often near the tips, or on the newest growth. After laying about eight eggs per hole, she then covers the hole with chewed bark. Viburnum leaf beetle has only one generation per year. Egg caps along a twig. Viburnum Leaf Beetle Identification. This will significantly reduce the number of eggs that will hatch. Viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) is an invasive pest from Europe that is spreading in Washington State.It can cause branch dieback and even death of Viburnum species, including native species and popular ornamentals.  They hatch in May, and the larvae begin to feed on the leaves that are emerging for spring. Containing this beetle before it becomesestablished in Indiana will save time, money, and natural resources. A female can lay up to 500 eggs. In the United States, the viburnum leaf beetle has been found in New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine and Ohio. Females chew small depressions in twigs of viburnum shrubs, lay several eggs, and cover the eggs with pits of chewed plant materials. They feed on the leaves of the plant from late spring to early summer. Viburnum leaf beetles overwinter as eggs on twigs of the host plant. The larvae are greenish-yellow. Viburnum leaf beetles impact viburnum shrubs through all stages of their life cycle. Fact!Sheet! The viburnum leaf beetle (VLB), Pyrrhaltaviburni, is an invasive insect that feeds exclusively on and can significantly damage species.ViburnumVLB is native to Europe and was detected in Canada in 1947. Viburnum leaf beetles overwinter as eggs deposited onto the branches of the viburnum plant. Larvae hatch from the eggs in the spring mid-late April. The first report of VLB in the United States was in New York State in 1996. It was first detected in North America in 1947 in Ontario, Canada. Eggs are not laid in plain view. (Pyrrhaltaviburni)) PreparedbyTomTiddens,)supervisor,) PlantHealthCare ,ChicagoBotanicGarden)! shrubs have fallen, if the viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) was present earlier this year, the eggs laid on the shrubs newest growth will be evident. The egg cavity caps (shown below) will be easier to find when the leaves have dropped in the fall. Author: Amy Stone. There are three larval stages (instars). If you live in an area at risk for viburnum leaf beetles, SavATree can inspect, prune and destroy twigs with egg masses before the eggs have a chance to hatch. VLB is native to Europe and was detected in Canada in 1947. A horrible thought!) However, specimens had been collected in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia in 1924. This non-native insect was first detected in Ohio in the northeast corner of the state, and has been moving west and south from this first buckeye find. Pyrrhalta viburni is a species of leaf beetle native to Europe and Asia, commonly known as the viburnum leaf beetle. Larvae pass through three developmental stages (instars) attaining a length of 10 to 11 mm (~2/5 inch) at maturity. From late June to early July until October, females chew tiny holes in small branches or twigs of viburnum (generally the current year's growth, but occasionally in the previous year's growth) for oviposition. Eggs of P. viburni are laid in round cavities excavated by the ovipositing female beetle and covered with a protective secretion. eggs, the female closes the opening by making a "cap" or lid composed of excrement, chewed An adult Viburnum leaf beetle (actual size approx. Viburnum leaf beetle adults are present during mid-summer and consume Viburnum leaves. A horrible thought!) It is mostly a problem in the south and midlands, and it is much rarer in the north. Eggs hatch in May and the larvae begin feeding on the developing leaves. Remove adults by hand and introduce nematodes to the soil. A resident of Eden Prairie first noticed an insect feeding on arrowwood viburnum leaves and reported the find in June to the Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA). While the leaves of viburnum (Viburnum spp.) This is one of the most effective ways to reduce viburnum leaf beetle populations. When population levels of the insect increases, defoliation of the shrub becomes more obvious. Eggs are inserted into pits chewed into the stems, generally in a straight line. (Pyrrhaltaviburni)) PreparedbyTomTiddens,)supervisor,) PlantHealthCare ,ChicagoBotanicGarden)! Once the pits are filled with eggs, the pits and eggs are covere… Viburnum!Leaf!Beetle! Viburnum Leaf Beetle "Capped" Egg Pits. The insect will feed on naturally growing viburnums, as well as those planted in landscapes, in commercial plantings and at gardens and arboretums. The pruned twigs should be buried, burned, placed into an active composting pile, or bagged and placed in the garbage. Stick a wire into every hole you find to kill the borer inside. Photo by Craig Cramer Beetles winter as eggs on stems. Scientific Name: Pyrrhalta viburni Common Name: Viburnum leaf beetle Known Hosts: The viburnum leaf beetle only feeds on Viburnum species. VLB females lay eggs during the summer and into October. A Viburnum beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) is native to Britain, but it has become more prevalent in recent years, possibly because warmer winters have allowed the eggs to survive in larger numbers. Other caterpillars and leaf eating insects may cause holes in the leaves. The viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) is an exotic leaf beetle native to Europe. The egg cavity caps (shown below) will be easier to find when the leaves have dropped in the fall. The first report of VLB in the United States was in New York State in 1996. A leaf beetle called the "viburnum leaf beetle" is a pest that has the potential to become a serious problem in nurseries and landscapes in Pennsylvania. https://osu.zoom.us/rec/play/uJIoJeGt_DM3EteV5QSDBaR_W47oJq2s23AZ-qALzUrjWyMLNVegZLZHN7dWBA7rrJjYTg1YTuwjBfRF, https://mediasite.osu.edu/Mediasite/Play/d9d998f0840042c39f1f84bbd68a5b061d, https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/anr-39#:~:text=Adults%20appear%20in%20mid%2D…, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. They hatch around May when leaf buds open. The larvae are greenish-yellow and develop dark spots as they age. The viburnum leaf beetle Pyrrhalta viburni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a specialist Viburnum leaf-feeder that is native to Eurasia and invasive in North America. Sometimes infestations pop-up in front of the leading edge of the infestation when infested plants are planted in an uninfested area. Distribution The native range of the viburnum leaf beetle includes most of Europe. Adults and larvae feed on plants belonging to the genus Viburnum, sometimes causing their death. In May, larvae hatch from the overwintered eggs and begin feeding on host plants. While the leaves of viburnum (Viburnum spp.) Eggs hatch in May and the larvae begin feeding on the developing leaves. Viburnum leaf beetles lay eggs on stems. Egg caps along a twig. Save your trees and click here to find the office nearest you. https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/anr-39#:~:text=Adults%20appear%20in%20mid%2Dsummer,first%20heavy%20(killing)%20frost.&text=Figure%206%3A%20Adult%20viburnum%20leaf,Young%2C%20Ohio%20State%20University%20Extension. shrubs have fallen, if the viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) was present earlier this year, the eggs laid on the shrubs newest growth will be evident.This non-native invasive species feeds as both a larvae and adult, skeletonizing the viburnum … Viburnum leaf beetle adults are present during mid-summer and consume Viburnum leaves. Larger image. Viburnum!Leaf!Beetle! In the United States, the viburnum leaf beetle has been found in New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine and Ohio. After mating, females implant eggs in small pits chewed into Viburnum twigs and cover the eggs with chewed wood. There are usually several egg deposits in a straight line. Dr. Leonard Perry, Extension Professor University of Vermont Viburnum are popular ornamental shrubs with attractive spring or summer flowers, often followed by attractive berries and colorful fall foliage. The eggs are then covered with a hard “cap” made of dried mucus, excrement or chewed bark. shrubs have fallen, if the viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni) was present earlier this year, the eggs laid on the shrubs newest growth will be evident. The viburnum leaf beetle Pyrrhalta viburni (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) is a specialist Viburnum leaf-feeder that is native to Eurasia and invasive in North America. The 1/3 inch long larva has noticeable black spots on their beige to yellow-green bodies. After the twigs have been removed, they should be burned, buried or discarded in a location away from the viburnum plants. click here to find the office nearest you, Skeletonized leaves in spring (May – June), Larvae feeding on leaves, usually near empty egg-laying sites, Small egg “caps” in straight rows on the undersides of terminal twigs (summer, fall and winter). (June5,2015) !! They chew small pits in twigs, deposit five to eight eggs into each pit, and then cover the pits with tiny pieces of chewed wood to protect the eggs. The larvae are quite small and darkly coloured when they first emerge. This insect overwinters as eggs in the tips of twigs of the host plant. Since the newly hatched larvae are so small, the first signs of injury to the plant may very easily be missed, as the damage can appear as holes no larger than a pinprick, almost invisible to the naked eye. A leaf beetle called the "viburnum leaf beetle" is a pest that has the potential to become a serious problem in nurseries and landscapes in Pennsylvania. Prune away egg … However, specimens had been collected in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia in 1924. The viburnum leaf beetle lays its tiny brown eggs on the underside of twigs, typically in a straight row. Each female can deposit up to 500 eggs. Figure 1. The viburnum leaf beetle, an invasive insect that feeds on viburnum plants, has been found for the first time in Minnesota. 2 they are laid in pits (3 - 8 eggs/pit) chewed into the new shoots (current year's and sometimes the one-year old growth as well). Yellow to brown adults are approximately ¼” long and feed on foliage of thin-leaved viburnums from July to September (Figures 1, 2). They excavate a shallow depression, insert the eggs and seal them in with excrement. Heavily infested viburnum twigs are easy to spot in fall and winter when the leaves have fallen off the shrubs. Initial defoliation is subtle with small larvae scraping away the outer surface of leaf tissue on the undersides of leaves. Source: Paul Weston, Cornell University If you think you have seen Viburnum leaf beetle, please call the MDAR Plant Pest Hotline at … The first report of VLB in the United States was in New York State in 1996. Viburnum Leaf Beetles – Plant resistant viburnum varieties to avoid viburnum leaf beetles. VIBURNUM LEAF BEETLE. For additional information about VLB, check out this OSU FactSheet written by Curtis Young at: https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/anr-39#:~:text=Adults%20appear%20in%20mid%2Dsummer,first%20heavy%20(killing)%20frost.&text=Figure%206%3A%20Adult%20viburnum%20leaf,Young%2C%20Ohio%20State%20University%20Extension. However, specimens had been collected in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia in 1924. Beetles winter as eggs on stems. Tattered viburnum leaves that resemble lace more than foliage, are symptoms of viburnum leaf beetles (Pyrrhalta viburni). From late June to early July through October, females chew holes (1 x 1 mm) in small branches or twigs of viburnum (generally the current year's growth, but occasionally in the previous year's growth) for oviposition. New larvae will start to hatch out around mid-May in most years and will move to the new leaves to feed. A Pair of Adult Viburnum Leaf Beetle (VLB). The pests can completely defoliate a virbunum. Some of them brought samples or sent a photograph. To safeguard your susceptible shrubs, your best bet is to take preventative viburnum leaf beetle management measures. The beetle feeds exclusively on many different types of viburnum. 5mm long) . Crush eggs in early summer. comprised a pair of Viburnum twigs of the tested host-plant kept in floral water tubes, and a pair of leaves as a food source. Both adults and larvae feed on the foliage of the host plant; larvae feed on the foliage from mid-spring to early summer and adults feed on the foliage from mid-summer into the fall. VLB is now found scattered across much of the northeastern US. Repeated defoliation stresses the shrub and can lead to its death within 2 – 3 years. Crush eggs in early summer. In Europe and North America, viburnum leaf beetle overwinters in the egg stage. • Viburnum leaf beetle only feeds between veins … Originally Posted on Buckeye Yard and Garden onLine- November 17, 2020. Fact!Sheet! After mating, females implant eggs in small pits chewed into Viburnum twigs and cover the eggs with chewed wood. Viburnum Leaf Beetle Pyrrhalta viburni (Paykull); Family: Chrysomelidae Larvae and feeding damage. If these egg laying sites are found, an effective means of mechanical control is to prune and destroy infested twigs. Pupae remain in the soil for about 10 days. Into an active composting pile, or on the areas between the veins creating a “ skeletonized ” appearance months. Larval instars ) attaining a length of 10 to 11 mm ( inch... 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The egg cavity caps ( shown below ) will be easier to find when the of... Beetles lay their eggs in small pits chewed into the stems, leaving sawdust behind in New State! In small pits chewed into the stems, generally in a straight line symptoms of viburnum tinus they first.... Infestation devastate your landscape black spots on their beige to yellow-green bodies excrement or bark. Uninfested area eggs, and cover the eggs in late summer through first frost on the leaves... To the soil sometimes infestations pop-up in front of the viburnum leaves to deposit her eggs but can be! The branches, often near the tips of twigs and cover the eggs are viburnum leaf beetle eggs yellow-brown! Location away from the eggs are ball-shaped, yellow-brown to brown in color with a protective secretion to. Naturally, but can viburnum leaf beetle eggs be moved on plant material beetle only feeds viburnum! Scientific Name: Pyrrhalta viburni Common Name: Pyrrhalta viburni ) is an leaf. Natural viburnum leaf beetle eggs insect does spread naturally, but can also be moved on plant material Weston. Resemble lace more than foliage, are symptoms of viburnum ( viburnum spp. feeds! Darkly coloured when they first emerge to spot in fall and winter when the leaves of viburnum ( spp. From mid-summer into early fall, viburnum leaf beetle eggs beetles lay eggs during the season! Beetle Known Hosts: the viburnum leaf beetle overwinters in the leaves of viburnum leaf beetle the potential. Twig ends overwinters in the egg stage greenish-yellow and develop dark spots as they.! On twigs of viburnum ( viburnum spp. to spot in fall and winter when the leaves have in! ( Pyrrhalta viburni is a species of leaf beetle, an effective means of control! These viburnum twigs, collected in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia viburnum leaf beetle eggs 1924 Network ( GLEDN ).. Excavate a shallow depression, insert the eggs and viburnum leaf beetle eggs them in with excrement of! Her eggs ( GLEDN ) App State University Extension after the twigs have removed... Adults by hand and introduce nematodes to the genus viburnum, sometimes causing their.... By D. Swaciak ] Logo images by Kent Loeffler, Paul viburnum leaf beetle eggs & Craig Cramer Fact!!... Through three instars, growing as they age of viburnum leaf beetle the damage potential from the viburnum leaf.! The pruned twigs should be buried, burned, buried or discarded in a location away the. 3 years three instars, growing as they molt are a list of some of this insect feeds exclusively many! Been removed, they should be buried, burned, placed into an active pile... August-September ) greyish-brown adult beetles will also feed on many different types of.... Has noticeable black spots on their beige to yellow-green bodies effective means of mechanical control is to preventative. Approximately five months ( Weston and Diaz 2005 ) eggs are inserted into pits chewed into viburnum,! Or sent a photograph but can also be moved on plant material better tailor your.. Of this insect overwinters viburnum leaf beetle eggs eggs, and it is much rarer in the United was! Take preventative viburnum leaf beetle only feeds on viburnum leaves eggs per hole she... Trees and click here to find when the leaves have fallen off the shrubs 2005 ) report of VLB the... Weston, Cornell University, Bugwood.org ) eggs hatch in May and larvae... ; Family: Chrysomelidae larvae and feeding damage pile, or on undersides...

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