side plank normative data
An electromyographic comparison of a modified version of the plank with a long lever and posterior tilt versus the traditional plank exercise. Five exercises surpassed 75% MVIC for the gluteus medius including, side plank with abduction with dominant leg on bottom (103% MVIC), side plank with abduction with dominant leg on top (89%MVIC), single limb squat (82%MVIC), clamshell (hip clam) progression 4 (77%MVIC), and front plank with hip extension (75%MVIC). Mentioned above, Cho et al. demonstrated that planks result in more EMG activity than side planks for the anterior trunk muscles; internal obliques, external obliques, rectus abdominis and rectus femoris (35). Effect of Plank Exercise Combined with Breathing and Arm Exercises on Abdominal Muscle Thickness. Boyer et al. compared planks with the addition of abduction or adduction, demonstrating no significant difference in internal oblique or external oblique activity (22). Imai, A., Kaneoka, K., Okubo, Y., & Shiraki, H. (2014). Pilot study: Effects of Caffeine on Stability and Duration of Plank Stability Exercise. The volume of studies has allowed for a relatively detailed description of the benefits of a plank and modifications. Similar to the trunk flexor endurance test, this timed test involves static, isometric contractions of the lateral muscles on each side of the trunk that stabilize the spine. Side Planks Stable versus Unstable: The addition of unstable environments during a side plank may increase muscle activity; however, there is likely an upper limit to the increase in muscle activity that can expected from the addition of unstable environments alone. Studies also show that pain may result in an increase in activity (bilaterally) to stabilize the spine (bracing) during functional tasks, like bending forward and lifting (3, 6, 8-9). Various texts and publications have implied that addressing core endurance and stability may improve balance during functional tasks. Also mentioned above, Kang et al. Core muscle activity during suspension exercises. Babakhani et al. | The effect of plank exercises with hip abduction using sling on trunk muscle activation in healthy adults. Kim, J. W., & Park, M. C. (2020). Additional studies have demonstrated that planks may have a positive effect on outcomes for symptomatic patients. investigated the spread of a twitter-based core-strengthening challenge (#PlankADay). Effect of Head and Leg Positions on Trunk and Upper Trapezius Muscle Activities during Plank Exercise. used ultrasound to demonstrate increased thickness of the transversus abdominis, internal obliques, external obliques and multifidus when the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) was added to a stable or unstable plank, with the largest change in thickness noted during the unstable plank with ADIM (28). Participants were instructed in plank positioning; elbows bent at 90Â° directly below the shoulders, hands unclasped, feet placed hip width apart with ankles at 90Â° and pelvis tilted in the neutral position. Kim, S. Y., Kang, M. H., Kim, E. R., Jung, I. G., Seo, E. Y., & Oh, J. S. (2016). Further, Escamilla et al. Last, Choi et al. Chase et al. METHODS: We assessed muscular strength using 4 different tests (plank, modified pull-up, knee extension, and grip strength) in 1224 youth aged 6 to 15 years collected during the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. demonstrated that modified planks (on knees) resulted in a significant decrease in rectus abdominis and external obliques activity, unstable surfaces increased rectus abdominis and external oblique activity in both conventional and modified versions, and erector spinae activity was similar for all variations (33). The Effects of Plank Exercises with the Contraction of the Adductor Muscle of the Hip Joint on Core Muscle Thickness. A large cohort of Navy cadets were assessed for physical performance tests of flexibility (ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and sit and reach), isometric hip strength, lower limb power (single leg hop), and trunk endurance (plank and side plank tests). In summary, these studies demonstrate the plank endurance test is a valid and reliable assessment, that some normative data has been established, and the test differs significantly from the v-sit endurance test. Last, social media challenges may be an effective means of spreading education and motivating for participation in fitness activities, including planks. (2007) compared active hip abduction, bridges, unilateral-bridges, side planks, front planks, quadruped opposite arm/leg raise, lateral step-up, and static body-weight lunges, demonstrating that only the side-plank required more than 45% MVIC activity from the external obliques (74). absence of forward head, knees bow in, etc.). demonstrated that unilateral resistance of adduction during a plank significantly increased transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis activity (16). | Bautista, D., Durke, D., Cotter, J. Choi, J. H., Kim, D. E., & Cynn, H. S. (2019). Ensure safe and optimal placement of any additional piece of equipment. Transverse Abdominis Activation) should precede core integration techniques, such as the plank. compared a conventional floor plank to a TRX suspension trainer plank and a stability ball plank, demonstrating the suspension trainer plank resulted in a significant increase in activity of the transverse abdominis, internal obliques, external obliques, rectus abdominis, multifidus and erector spinae, and a stability ball plank significantly increased activity of the same muscles except for the transverse abdominis (43). Comparison of core stabilizer muscle activity according to movement difficulty and stability during various trx plank. Side Plank Form Guide Start on your side with your feet together and one forearm directly below your shoulder. These studies demonstrate that progressing a plank with the addition of a stability ball is effective for increasing trunk muscle activity. compared 4 weeks of planks to general stretching for the treatment of low back pain, demonstrating that at 4 weeks both groups exhibited increased thickness of the the abdominal muscles; however, the plank group exhibited larger increases in thickness of the external obliques and lower visual analog pain scores (54). Bautista et al. Several studies have investigated the utility of the plank as an assessment. As mentioned above, Bak et al. These studies suggest that without additional equipment, progression to unilateral lower extremity support can be used to increase core muscle recruitment. RESULTS: The mean time held in the plank position was 96.25 + 43.16 and 116.58 + 65.49 seconds for females and males, respectively. Once the client is stable on the support leg, you may correct the contra-lateral leg, cuing triple flexion (hip flexion, knee flexion and dorsiflexion). Several studies have demonstrated the synergy between these subsystems. Patil et al. compared the muscle activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, erector spinae, and upper trapezius during six variations of plank exercises, including three changes in head position and two changes in leg position (wide and narrow), demonstrating that the head down position significantly increased rectus abdominis activity, the head up position significantly increased upper trapezius activity, and legs wide resulted in an increase in rectus abdominis and internal oblique activity when compared to legs neutral (32). In summary, attentional focus on muscles and caffeine are likely to have little if any effect on muscle recruitment or plank performance; however, planks are likely an effective intervention for aiding in the achievement of weight loss goals. demonstrated that plank endurance test performance was highly correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, moderately correlated with the Cooper test, poorly correlated with the step 50 agility test, and not correlated with vertical jump performance (66). The findings demonstrated that unstable and perturbation conditions resulted in significantly more activity than a floor plank; however, there was no significant difference between the unstable and perturbation conditions (73). Plank Times: Male … About NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window. Cho et al. compared conventional and modified planks (on knees), on the floor and with feet/knees on inflatable disks, demonstrating that an unstable surface resulted in a significant increase in rectus abdominis and external obliques activity for both conventional and modified planks (33). However, Ekstrom et al. The results by quartile for women were 63 seconds (sec) for the 25th percentile, 90 sec for the 50th percentile, and 121 sec. Torso elevation using benches or squat racks may be used to adjust load. 3. and Baritello et al. demonstrated that planks with the addition of slings may aid in abdominal muscle stabilization, reducing circumference of the waistline, and contribute to weight loss; however, this was not a comparative study and these results may be more indicative of planks being an effective intervention for weight loss goals (70). Female Fitness Categories Table 3. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 5(2), 102-111. Resistance training is accompanied by increases in hip strength and changes in lower extremity biomechanics during running. Last, An RCT by Walton et al. A., Kim, E. J., Cha, H. Y., Ryu, H. W., Seo, Y. H., Seong, J. Y., ... & Choi, B. R. (2020). Take all skinfolds on the right side of the body (for reliability) Ensure that you take the skinfold in a rotational order (circuit) and do not complete consecutive readings at each skinfold site; Grasp the skinfold firmly between your thumb and index finger of your left hand. demonstrated that internal oblique, external oblique and rectus abdominis activity increased when bilateral isometric hip adduction was added to a conventional plank, and activity increased further when isometric hip adduction was resisted unilaterally (17). (1995). Plank time (sec) 116.58 ± 65.49 96.25± 43.16 Percentile Seconds Fitness Classification <25 <63 Poor 25-50 63-90 Below Average 50-75 91-121 Good >75 >121 Excellent Percentile Seconds Fitness Classification <25 <77 Poor 25-50 77-106 Below Average 50-75 107-128.5 Good >75 >128.5 Excellent Table 2. Adding balance pads significantly increased trunk muscle activity during a plank with the addition of a stability ball or trainers... & Knox, J test purpose: the side ramp position for as long optimal! During stable and unstable surface investigated in several studies have compared planks with the performance of high-velocity tasks data. Plank likely increases demand less than the addition of a suspension trainer, juker, D. Cotter! The result is by comparing it with the addition of a core-strengthening exercise through online! Were based on velocity and amount of power ( strength & Conditioning research, (. 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